# Research Papers
Authors: Yulia Bardinova, Konstantin Zhidanov, Sergey Bezzateev, Mikhail Komarov, Aleksandr Ometov
Abstract: This is a data descriptor paper for a set of the battery output data measurements during the turned on display discharge process caused by the execution of modern mobile blockchain projects on Android devices. The measurements were executed for Proof-of-Work (PoW) and Proof-of-Activity (PoA) consensus algorithms. In this descriptor, we give examples of Samsung Galaxy S9 operation while a broader range of measurements is available in the dataset. Examples provide the data about battery output current, output voltage, temperature, and status. We also show the measurements obtained utilizing short-range (IEEE 802.11n) and cellular (LTE) networks. This paper describes the proposed dataset and the method employed to gather the data. To provide a further understanding of the dataset’s nature, an analysis of the collected data is also briefly presented. This dataset may be of interest to both researchers from information security and human–computer interaction fields and industrial distributed ledger/blockchain developers.
Published in: Data, Special Issue "Data from Smartphone and Wearables"
Read the article on MDPI
# An Overview on Blockchain for Smartphones: State-of-the-Art, Consensus, Implementation, Challenges and Future Trends
Authors: Aleksandr Ometov, Yulia Bardinova, Alexandra Afanasyeva, Pavel Masek, Konstantin Zhidanov, Sergey Vanurin, Mikhail Sayfullin, Viktoriia Shubina, Mikhail Komarov, Sergey Bezzateev
Abstract: The blockchain technology is currently penetrating different areas of the modern Information and Communications Technology community. Most of the devices involved in blockchain-related processes are specially designed targeting only the mining aspect, i.e., solving the computational puzzle task. At the same time, the use of wearable and mobile devices may also become a part of eCommerce blockchain operation, especially during the on-charge time. The paper considers the possibility of using a large number of constrained devices to support the operation of the blockchain with a low impact on battery consumption. The utilization of such devices is expected to improve the system efficiency as well as to attract a more substantial number of users. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge with a survey of the main applications of blockchain for smartphones along with existing mobile blockchain projects. It also proposes a novel consensus protocol based on a combination of Proof-of-Work (PoW), Proof-of-Activity (PoA), and Proof-of-Stake (PoS) algorithms for efficient and on-the-fly utilization on resource-constrained devices. The system was deployed in a worldwide testnet with more than two thousand smartphones and compared with other projects from the user-experienced metrics perspective. The results prove that the utilization of PoA systems on a smartphone does not significantly affect the lifetime of the smartphone battery while existing methods based on PoW have a tremendous negative impact. Finally, the main open challenges and future investigation directions are outlined.
Published in: IEEE Access (Early Access)
# Blockchain Technology for Smartphones and Constrained IoT Devices: A Future Perspective and Implementation
Authors: Konstantin Zhidanov, Sergey Bezzateev, Alexandra Afanasyeva, Mikhail Sayfullin, Sergey Vanurin, Yulia Bardinova, Aleksandr Ometov
Abstract: The blockchain technology is currently penetrating different sides of modern ICT community. Most of the devices involved in blockchain-related processes are specially designed targeting only the mining aspect. At the same time, the use of wearable and mobile devices may also become a part of blockchain operation, especially during the charging time. The paper considers the possibility of using a large number of constrained devices supporting the operation of the blockchain. The utilization of such devices is expected to improve the efficiency of the system and also to attract a more substantial number of users. Authors propose a novel consensus algorithm based on a combination of Proof-of-Work (PoW), Proof-of-Activity (PoA), and Proof-of-Stake (PoS). The paper first overviews the existing strategies and further describes the developed cryptographic primitives used to build a blockchain involving mobile devices. A brief numerical evaluation of the designed system is also provided in the paper.