# Научные публикации

Авторы: Aleksandr Ometov, Yulia Bardinova, Alexandra Afanasyeva, Pavel Masek, Konstantin Zhidanov, Sergey Vanurin, Mikhail Sayfullin, Viktoriia Shubina, Mikhail Komarov, Sergey Bezzateev

Аннотация:

The blockchain technology is currently penetrating different areas of the modern Information and Communications Technology community. Most of the devices involved in blockchain-related processes are specially designed targeting only the mining aspect, i.e., solving the computational puzzle task. At the same time, the use of wearable and mobile devices may also become a part of eCommerce blockchain operation, especially during the on-charge time. The paper considers the possibility of using a large number of constrained devices to support the operation of the blockchain with a low impact on battery consumption. The utilization of such devices is expected to improve the system efficiency as well as to attract a more substantial number of users. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge with a survey of the main applications of blockchain for smartphones along with existing mobile blockchain projects. It also proposes a novel consensus protocol based on a combination of Proof-of-Work (PoW), Proof-of-Activity (PoA), and Proof-of-Stake (PoS) algorithms for efficient and on-the-fly utilization on resource-constrained devices. The system was deployed in a worldwide testnet with more than two thousand smartphones and compared with other projects from the user-experienced metrics perspective. The results prove that the utilization of PoA systems on a smartphone does not significantly affect the lifetime of the smartphone battery while existing methods based on PoW have a tremendous negative impact. Finally, the main open challenges and future investigation directions are outlined.

Опубликовано: IEEE Access (Early Access)

Статья доступна на IEEE Xplore и ResearchGate

# Blockchain Technology for Smartphones and Constrained IoT Devices: A Future Perspective and Implementation

Авторы: Konstantin Zhidanov, Sergey Bezzateev, Alexandra Afanasyeva, Mikhail Sayfullin, Sergey Vanurin, Yulia Bardinova, Aleksandr Ometov

Аннотация:

The blockchain technology is currently penetrating different sides of modern ICT community. Most of the devices involved in blockchain-related processes are specially designed targeting only the mining aspect. At the same time, the use of wearable and mobile devices may also become a part of blockchain operation, especially during the charging time. The paper considers the possibility of using a large number of constrained devices supporting the operation of the blockchain. The utilization of such devices is expected to improve the efficiency of the system and also to attract a more substantial number of users. Authors propose a novel consensus algorithm based on a combination of Proof-of-Work (PoW), Proof-of-Activity (PoA), and Proof-of-Stake (PoS). The paper first overviews the existing strategies and further describes the developed cryptographic primitives used to build a blockchain involving mobile devices. A brief numerical evaluation of the designed system is also provided in the paper.

Опубликовано: Proc. of IEEE 21st Conference on Business Informatics (CBI)

Статья доступна на IEEE Xplore и ResearchGate